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Oracle Solaris 11 System Administration

Question No: 101 – (Topic 2)

You are attempting to troubleshoot an event that should have made an entry into the messages log. This event happened about two weeks ago. Which file should you look at first?

  1. /var/adm/messages

  2. /var/adm/messages.0

  3. /var /adm/messagas.1

  4. /var/adm/messages.2

  5. /var/adm/messages.3

Answer: A Explanation:

The /var/adm/messages is the file to which all the messages printed on the console are logged to by the Operating System. This helps to track back check the console messages to troubleshoot any issues on the system.

Syslog daemon also writes to this /var/adm/messages file.

The /var/adm/messages file monitored and managed by newsyslog and its configuration file is /usr/lib/newsyslog.

This script runs as the roots cron job everyday,checks the /var/adm/messages file and copies/moves it to /var/adm/messages.0,1,2,3,4,5,6,7. In other words,it does the Log Rotation for the /var/adm/messages.

In an event the /var file system is running out of space,these files needs to checked and can be removed (not the actual /var/adm/messages itself) to free up space on the file system.

However,care has to be taken,if you decide to empty the /var/adm/messages itself for any reason. This process is called Truncation.

SOLARIS SYSTEM ADMIN TIPS,/var/adm/messages

Question No: 102 – (Topic 2)

You are using AI to install a new system. You have added to following information to the AI manifest:

lt;configuration type= “zone” name= “dbzone”

source = “http://sysA.example.com/zone_cfg/zone.cfg”/gt; Which statement is true with regard to the zone.cfg?

  1. The zone.cfg file is text file in a zonecfg export format.

  2. The zone.cfg file is an AI manifest that specifies how the zone is to be installed.

  3. The zone.cfg file is an xml file in a form suitable for use as a command file for the zonecfg command.

  4. The zone.cfg file is an SC profile with keywords that are specific for configuring a as part of the installation process.

  5. It is am xml configuration file from the /etc/zone directory. It will be used as a profile for the zone. It specifies the zonename,zonepath,and other zonecfg parameters.

Answer: B Explanation:

The configuration element supports non-global zone configurations. When installing a global zone system,the zone configurations specified in the AI manifest are used to install non-global zones onto the system after the global zone has been installed

The configuration element has the following attributes:

type

The type of configuration to install. The only type supported by AI is zone.

name

A name given to the configuration. This name must be unique across all configuration elements in an AI manifest. For configurations of type zone,this name is also used as the zonename for he zone.

Source

The location from which AI downloads the configuration file for this configuration element. The value can be an HTTP or FILE URI specification. For configurations of type zone,this value should point to a zone configuration file as produced from the zonecfg export command.

Question No: 103 – (Topic 2)

In a default standalone installation of Oracle Solaris 11,what is the default minimum length in characters of a user password,and where is the minimum password length defined?

  1. Default minimum length is 8,and is defined in /etc/default/password.

  2. Default minimum length is 6,and is defined in /etc/default/password.

  3. Default minimum length is 8,and is defined in /etc/shadow.

  4. Default minimum length is 6,and is defined in /etc/shadow.

  5. Default minimum length is 8,and is defined in /usr/sadm/defadduser.

  6. Default minimum length is 6,and is defined in /usr/sadm/defadduser.

Answer: B Explanation:

By default,the passwd command assumes a minimum length of six characters. You can use the PASSLENGTH default in the /etc/defaults/passwd files to change that by setting the minimum number of characters that a user#39;s password must contain to some other number.

Question No: 104 – (Topic 2)

The current ZFS configuration on server is:

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You need to backup the /data file system while the file system is active.

Select the option that creates a full backup of the /data file system and stores the backup on server in the pool named backup.

  1. Mount -F nfs system: /backup / mntzfs snapshot pool/data@mondaygt;/mnt/Monday

  2. Mount -F nfs systemB: /backup/mntzfs snapshot pool1/data@Mondayzfs clone pool1/data@monday/mnt/Monday

  3. Zfs send pool1/data@Monday | ssh system zfs recv backup/monday

  4. Zfs snapshot pool1/data@Monday | ssh system zfs recv backup/monday

    Answer: D Explanation:

    Example (assuming there exists a snapshot ‘tank/test@1). Full backup

    Now let’s do a full initial backup from the ‘tank/test@1 snapshot:

    # zfs send tank/test@1 | zfs receive tank/testback

    Question No: 105 – (Topic 2)

    You created a new zpool. Now you need to migrate the existing ZFS file system from pool1/prod to pool2/prod.

    You have these requirements:

    1. Users must have access to the data during the migration,so you cannot shutdown the file system while the migration takes place.

    2. Because you want to copy the data as quickly as possible,you need to increase the server resources devoted to the ZFS migration.

      Which method would you use to modify the ZFS shadow migration daemon defaults to increase the concurrency and overall speed of migration?

      1. Svccfg – s filesystem/shadowd:defaultsetprop config_params/shadow_threads=integer: 16endsvcadm refresh filesystem/shadowd: default

      2. Specify the -b lt;blocksizegt; option with the zfs create command and increase the value of

        lt;blocksizegt;

      3. Use the -o -volblocksize=lt;blocksizegt;option with the zfs create command and increase the value of the default lt;blocksizegt;.

      4. Svccfg -s filesystem/zfs: defaultsetprop config_params/shadow_threads = integer: 16endsvcadm refresh filesystem/zfs:default

Answer: A Explanation:

shadowd is a daemon that provides background worker threads to migrate data for a shadow migration. A shadow migration gradually moves data from a source file system into a new “shadow” file system. Users can access and change their data within the shadow file system while migration is occurring.

The shadowd service is managed by the service management facility,smf(5). Administrative actions on this service,such as enabling,disabling,or requesting restart,can be performed using svcadm(1M). The service#39;s status can be queried using the svcs(1) command.

The svccfg(1M) command can be used to manage the following parameter related to shadowd:

config_params/shadow_threads

Note: Oracle Solaris 11: In this release,you can migrate data from an old file system to a new file system while simultaneously allowing access and modification of the new file system during the migration process.

Setting the shadow property on a new ZFS file system triggers the migration of the older data. The shadow property can be set to migrate data from the local system or a remote system with either of the following values:

file:///path nfs://host:path

Question No: 106 – (Topic 2)

Review the storage pool information:

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Which statement describes the status of this storage pool?

  1. It is a RAIDZ storage pool and can withstand a single disk failure; data will be striped at: disk components.

  2. It is a double-parity RAIDZ storage pool and can withstand two disk failures; data will be striped across four disk components.

  3. It is an improperly configured RAIDZ storage pool; data will be striped across four disk components,but only three drives are protected with redundancy.

  4. It is an improperly configured RAIDZ storage pool; data will be striped across three disk components,but only three drives are protected with redundancy.

Answer: D Explanation:

Device c3t6d0 is not included in the RAIDZ storage pool. The other three devices are included in the raidz pool. The data on these devices are protected.

Note: In addition to a mirrored storage pool configuration,ZFS provides a RAID-Z configuration with either single,double,or triple parity fault tolerance. Single-parity RAID-Z (raidz or raidz1) is similar to RAID-5. Double-parity RAID-Z (raidz2) is similar to RAID-6.

Question No: 107 – (Topic 2)

Which four can the SMF notification framework be configured to monitor and report?

  1. all service transition states

  2. service dependencies that have stopped or faulted

  3. service configuration modifications

  4. legacy services that have not started

  5. services that have been disabled

  6. service fault management events

  7. processes that have been killed

Answer: A,E,F,G Explanation:

Note 1: State Transition Sets are defined as:

tolt;stategt;

Set of all transitions that have lt;stategt; as the final state of the transition.

form-lt;stategt;

Set of all transitions that have lt;stategt; as the initial state of the transition.

lt;stategt;

Set of all transitions that have lt;stategt; as the initial state of the transitional. Set of all transitions. (A)

Valid values of state are maintenance,offline (G),disabled (E),online and degraded. An example of a transitions set definition: maintenance,from-online,to-degraded.

F: In this context,events is a comma separated list of SMF state transition sets or a comma separated list of FMA (Fault Management Architecture) event classes. events cannot have a mix of SMF state transition sets and FMA event classes. For convenience,the tags

problem- {diagnosed,updated,repaired,resolved} describe the lifecycle of a problem diagnosed by the FMA subsystem – from initial diagnosis to interim updates and finally problem closure.

Note 2:

SMF allows notification by using SNMP or SMTP of state transitions. It publishes Information Events for state transitions which are consumed by notification daemons like snmp-notify(1M) and smtp-notify(1M). SMF state transitions of disabled services do not generate notifications unless the final state for the transition is disabled and there exist notification parameters for that transition. Notification is not be generated for transitions that have the same initial and final state.

Question No: 108 – (Topic 2)

A change in your company’s security policy now requires an audit trial of all administrators assuming the sysadm role,capturing:

There are two command necessary to accomplish this change. One is a rolemod command. What is the other?

  1. auditconfig set policy=argv

  2. auditconfig -setpolicy argv

  3. auditconfig -setflags lo,ex sysadm

  4. auditconfig set flags=lo,ex sysadm

Answer: B Explanation:

Audit Significant Events in Addition to Login/Logout (see step 2 below)

Use this procedure to audit administrative commands,attempts to invade the system,and other significant events as specified by your site security policy.

For all users and roles,add the AUE_PFEXEC audit event to their preselection mask.

# usermod -K audit_flags=lo,ps:no username

# rolemod -K audit_flags=lo,ps:no rolename

# auditconfig -setpolicy argv

3- Record the environment in which audited commands are executed.

# auditconfig -setpolicy arge

Note: [-t] -setpolicy [ |-]policy_flag[,policy_flag …]

Set the kernel audit policy. A policy policy_flag is literal strings that denotes an audit policy. A prefix of adds the policies specified to the current audit policies. A prefix of – removes the policies specified from the current audit policies. No policies can be set from a local zone unless the perzone policy is first set from the global zone.

Question No: 109 – (Topic 2)

On server A,you enter the following command to add a static route to serverA route -p add

-host 192.168.1.101 192.168.1.101 -static

What is the purpose of this command?

  1. to temporarily bypass IP Filter rules

  2. to specify an IPMP target IP address to in.mpathd

  3. to specify routing to an adjacent network when in.rdisc is not used

  4. to specify routing to an adjacent network when in.routed is not used

  5. to ensure the IP address for serverB is not flushed from the ARP cache

  6. to optimize link aggregation using a direct connection between two systems

Answer: B Explanation:

Note: # route -p add -host destination-IP gateway-IP -static

where destination-IP and gateway-IP are IPv4 addresses of the host to be used as a target.

For example,you would type the following to specify the target system 192.168.10.137,which is on the same subnet as the interfaces in IPMP group itops0:

$ route -p add -host 192.168.10.137 192.168.10.137 -static

This new route will be automatically configured every time the system is restarted. If you

want to define only a temporary route to a target system for probe-based failure detection,then do not use the -p option.

Question No: 110 – (Topic 2)

You need to set up an Oracle Solaris 11 host as an iSCSI target so that the host#39;s disk can be accessed over a storage network. The disk device is c3t4d0.

Which six options describe the steps that need to be taken on this host to enable an iSCSI target?

  1. Create a ZFS file system named iscsi/target.

  2. Create a zpool named iscsi with disk device c3t4d0

  3. Create zfs volume named iscsi/target.

  4. Use the stmfadm command to create a LUN using /dev/zvol/rdsk/iscsi/target.

  5. Use the stmfadm command to create a LUN using iscsi/target.

  6. Use the stmfadm command to make the LUN viewable.

  7. Use the stmfadm command to make the volume viewable.

  8. Enable the svc:/network/iscsi/target:default Service.

  9. Use the itadm command to create the iSCSI target.

Answer: B,C,D,F,H,I

Explanation:

How to Create an iSCSI LUN

The following steps are completed on the system that is providing the storage device.

Example: target# zpool create sanpool mirror c2t3d0 c2t4d0 (C)2. Create a ZFS volume to be used as a SCSI LUN. (D)3. Create a LUN for the ZFS volume.

Example:

target# stmfadm create-lu /dev/zvol/rdsk/sanpool/vol1

Logical unit created: 600144F0B5418B0000004DDAC7C10001

4. Confirm that the LUN has been created.

Example

target# stmfadm list-lu

LU Name: 600144F0B5418B0000004DDAC7C10001

(F) 5. Add the LUN view.

This command makes the LUN accessible to all systems.

target# stmfadm add-view 600144F0B5418B0000004DDAC7C10001 How to Create the iSCSI Target

This procedure assumes that you are logged in to the local system will contains the iSCSI target.

Note: The stmfadm command manages SCSI LUNs. Rather than setting a special iSCSI property on the ZFS volume,create the volume and use stmfadm to create the LUN.

  1. 1. Enable the iSCSI target service.

    target# svcadm enable -r svc:/network/iscsi/target:default

  2. 2. Create the iSCSI target. target# itadm create-target

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