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Oracle Solaris 11 Installation and Configuration Essentials

Question No: 11

A customer has multiple applications and you believe consolidation using Oracle Solaris Zones will help them. The customer is concerned that consolidating them all on one physic server may cause adverse interactions between them, causing problems with functionality, security, and performance. What are the two benefits of Zones that would explain why Zones would be a good choice?

  1. better single threaded performance

  2. better software isolation

  3. better hardware isolation

  4. simpler VLAN management

  5. simple,effective resource controls

Answer: B,E

Explanation: B(not C):A zone is a virtualized operating system environment that is created within a single instance of the Oracle Solaris operating system. Oracle Solaris Zones are a partitioning technology that provides an isolated, secure environment for applications.

Note:

*When you create a zone, you produce an application execution environment in which processes are isolated from the rest of the system. This isolation prevents a process that is running in one zone from monitoring or affecting processes that are running in other zones. Even a process running with root credentials cannot view or affect activity in other zones. A zone also provides an abstract layer that separates applications from the physical attributes of the machine on which the zone is deployed. Examples of these attributes include physical device paths and network interface names. The default non-global zone brand in the Oracle Solaris 11.1 release is the solariszone.

By default, all systems have a global zone. The global zone has a global view of the Oracle Solaris environment that is similar to the superuser (root) model. All other zones are referred to as non-global zones. A non-global zone is analogous to an unprivileged user in the superuser model. Processes in non-global zones can control only the processes and files within that zone. Typically, system administration work is mainly performed in the global zone. In rare cases where a system administrator needs to be isolated, privileged applications can be used in a non-global zone. In general, though, resource management activities take place in the global zone.

Reference:Oracle Solaris 11.1 Information Library,Oracle Solaris Zones Overview

Question No: 12

A zone won#39;t boot. Identify the five causes.

  1. The zone is configured to have its own CPUs, and there aren#39;t enough.

  2. The zone isconfigured to have exclusive access to an NIC,and the NIC is alreadyup.

  3. The zone is configured to mount a file system, which is already mounted.

  4. The zone iscurrently running or shutting down.

  5. The zone has been uninstalled.

  6. Your terminal session is missing the SYS_TIME privilege.

Answer: A,B,C,D,E

Explanation: A:dedicated-cpu Resource

The dedicated-cpu resource specifies that a subset of the system#39;s processors should be dedicated to a non-global zone while it is running. When the zone boots, the system will dynamically create a temporary pool for use while the zone is running.

C:s the global administrator in the global zone, you can import raw and block devices into a non-global zone. After the devices are imported, the zone administrator has access to the disk. The zone administrator can then create a new file system on the disk and perform one of the following actions:

Mount the file system manually

Place the file system in /etc/vfstab so that it will be mounted on zone boot

D, E:Booting a zone places the zone in the running state. A zone can be booted from the ready state or from the installed state. A zone in the installed state that is booted transparently transitions through the ready state to the running state. Zone login is allowed for zones in the running state.

Incorrect:

Not F: Sys_time not related to booting a zone.

Question No: 13

Which two statements are true of the GRUB menu?

  1. GRUB is the default boot loader for Oracle Solaris 11 SPARC and x86.

  2. GRUB supports Oracle Solaris and Oracle Linux only.

  3. GRUB loads akernel based upon the file name, disk, and partition specified.

  4. GRUB uses boot environments for all operating systems.

  5. GRUB is fully compliant with the Multiboot specification.

Answer: A,C Explanation: A:

  • If your system has more than one OS installed on the system or more than one root boot environment in a ZFS root pool, you can boot from these boot environments for both SPARC and x86 platforms.

  • *GRUB, the open source boot loader, is the default boot loader in the Solaris OS.

    C:With GRUB based booting, the kernel is loaded by specifying its file name, and the drive, and the partition where the kernel resides. GRUB based booting replaces the Solaris Device Configuration Assistant and simplifies the booting process with a GRUB menu.

    Incorrect: NotE:

    *In this implementation of GRUB, the multiboot module is no longer used.

    Question No: 14

    What two features identify Oracle Solaris 11 as being quot;built for cloudsquot;?

    1. ability to use SSH lo securely connect to Oracle Solaris11servers

    2. firstfullyvirtualizedoperating system featuring built-in virtualization with Zones

    3. secure rapid provisioning and lifecycle management

    4. OracleSolaris 11 has been designed toprovide arobust and easily usable desktop environmentfor end users

    5. Oracle Solaris11is installable from DVD Media

    Answer: B,D Explanation:

    B:Built-in Virtualization

    Whatever the needs of your cloud infrastructure, Oracle has a comprehensive suite of built- in virtualization technologies to compliment your business requirements.

    Choose from Oracle Solaris Zones, OVM Server for SPARC, OVM Server for x86 and OVM VirtualBox. With Oracle Solaris Zones, administrators can rapidly provision secure and isolated virtual environments in which to deploy cloud applications and services.

    D:

    Oracle Solaris is the best platform for the cloud because it combines key computing elements – operating system, virtualization, networking, storage management, and user environment – into a stable, secure, mission-critical foundation that customers can depend on

    Question No: 15

    Your installation has completed successfully and the system did not reboot automatically. Which option would cause this?

    1. Automatic reboots are only allowed when invoked via SMF.

    2. The client neverreboots automatically after the successful installation, staying availableformanuallyverification of the install process.

    3. The quot;auto_rebootquot; parameter in the Automated Installer manifest has not been set to quot;true.quot;

    4. The quot;installationquot;service needed to be refreshed for the quot;auto_rebootquot; setting is to be applied, so all clientsbeing installed from it could reboot.

    5. Post installation rebootsare no longer necessary because the Oracle Solaris11AutomatedInstallation installs andactivesthesystem#39;s services in the desired state such that thereisno need for a reboot.

    Answer: C

    Explanation: auto_reboot – Optional. Omitting the auto_reboot attribute is equivalent to setting the value of the attribute to false. By default, AI does not automatically reboot the client after installation. To request automatic reboot of the client after successful installation, specify auto_reboot=quot;truequot;.

    Note:

    *Example 1 Set the auto_reboot Attribute

    $ aimanifest set /auto_install/ai_instance@auto_reboot false Reference:Creating a Custom AI Manifest

    Question No: 16

    Which is the preferred command to manage Layer 3 network properties in Oracle Solaris 11?

    1. dladm

    2. ipadm

    3. ifconfig

    4. netstat

    5. arp

    Answer: B

    Explanation: Interfaces that are on the IP layer (Layer 3) are configured by using the ipadm command.

    Question No: 17

    When conducting an automated installation, the name of the resulting root pool is quot;rpool1.quot; Which is the direct cause of this?

    1. The system already has aroot pool named quot;rpoolquot;.

    2. The manifestdeclares thename of the root pool to use.

    3. quot;pool1quot;is the preexisting name of the root pool.

    4. quot;rpoolquot; is a reserved pool name thatcan only be used for factory-based installations.

    5. Of thetwo disks present for mirroring, the first is named quot;rpoolquot; and the second is namedquot;pool1quot;.

    Answer: A

    Question No: 18

    What has become the default graphical user interface for Oracle Solaris 11 desktop operation?

    1. CDE(Common DesktopEnvironment)

    2. Gnome Desktop

    3. X-Window System

    4. Firefox WebBrowser

    5. Java Desktop

    Answer: B

    Explanation: The Solaris 11 release in November 2011 only contains GNOME as a full desktop.

    Incorrect:

    Not A: The Common Desktop Environment (CDE) is a desktop environment for Unix and OpenVMS, based on the Motif widget toolkit. For a long period, it was the quot;classicquot; Unix desktop associated with commercial Unix workstations. After a long history as proprietary software, it was released as free software on 6 August 2012, under the GNU Lesser General Public License.

    Question No: 19

    What answer includes three correct methods available to transition Oracle Solaris 10 environments to Oracle Solaris 11?

    1. Solaris Upgrade installation,Live Upgrade, js2ai and Automated Install

    2. Solaris Flash Archive Installation, ZFS shadow migration, NFS sharing and pool migration

    3. Custom JumpStart, Oracle Solaris 10 non-global zones, Iu2be Conversion Utility

    4. NFS file sharing and pool migration, ZFS shadow migration, JumpStart Migration Utility

    5. Iu2be Conversion Utility, Solaris Flash Archive installation, Puppet

    Answer: D

    Explanation: There are no upgrade methods or tools available to transition from Oracle Solaris 10 to Oracle Solaris 11. You cannot use an installer to upgrade from Oracle Solaris 10 to Oracle Solaris 11.

    Oracle Solaris 11 Transition Tools and Features

    /JumpStart Migration Utility (js2ai)

    Used to convert Oracle Solaris 10 JumpStart rules and profiles to a format that is compatible with AI manifest entries.

    /ZFS shadow migration feature

    Used to migrate data from an existing file system to a new file system.

    /Oracle Solaris 11 support for Oracle Solaris 10 zones

    Used to migrate your Oracle Solaris 10 application environments to an Oracle Solaris 11 system.

    /NFS file sharing and pool migration

    Used to access shared files from an Oracle Solaris 10 system on an Oracle Solaris 11 system.

    Used to import a ZFS storage pool from an Oracle Solaris 10 system into an Oracle Solaris 11 system.

    Reference:Oracle Solaris 11 Information Library,Transitioning Your Oracle Solaris 10 System to Oracle Solaris 11

    Question No: 20

    After installing and customizing an Oracle Solaris 11 non-global (solaris brand) zone, you execute commands:

    # zonecfg -z myzone ‘set file-mac-profile=fixed-configuration#39;

    # zoneadm -z myzone reboot

    What is the impact of making this specific change?

    1. Thischange prevents MAC address spoofing by requiring outbound network packets to have apredefined value.

    2. This enables supportwithin the zone for Mac OS Xextended file attributes for the zone root file system.

    3. This change restricts user access to objects in the zone based upon their Oracle Solaris Trusted Extensionlabels.

    4. This change prevents the zone from being able to mount any remote file systems oncethe zonehas boon booted.

    5. This change forcesthe zone root file system into a read-only state where only parts of/var are writable.

    Answer: E

    Explanation: Through the zonecfg utility, the file-mac-profile can be set to one of the

    following values (see note below). All of the profiles except none will cause the /var/pkg directory and its contents to be read-only from inside the zone.

    *none

    Standard, read-write, non-global zone, with no additional protection beyond the existing zones boundaries. Setting the value to none is equivalent to not setting file-mac-

    profile property.

    * strict

    *fixed-configuration

    Permits updates to /var/* directories, with the exception of directories that contain system configuration components.

    IPS packages, including new packages, cannot be installed. Persistently enabled SMF services are fixed.

    SMF manifests cannot be added from the default locations.

    Logging and auditing configuration files can be local. syslog and audit configuration are fixed.

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